According to statistics, after the 10th year of life, about 30% of dogs and 50% of bitches suffer from cancer. Cancer in dogs is essentially the same as cancer in humans; it is also uncontrolled cell growth caused by a mutation at the DNA level. Sometimes there are benign formations, but more often neoplasms are malignant. Gene mutation begins in one cell but spreads to numerous cells, which with the development of the disease begins to form tumors. And lymph and blood transfer diseased cells to other organs, where they give daughter formations – metastases. In order to help your dog in time, you need to pay attention to the following symptoms:
- any bulge or pineal formation on any part of the dog’s body;
- ulcers that do not heal for a long time;
- the dog lost her appetite;
- the appearance of blood or pus in places of physiological holes;
- shortness of breath, excrement of feces and urine;
- the appearance of bad breath;
- difficulty absorbing food or water;
- vomiting and diarrhea;
- difficulty walking, pain;
- the appearance of coughing or wheezing;
weakness, anemia, pain, sleep disturbances, impaired coordination, fainting.
Types of cancer
Since the nature of cancer in humans and dogs is the same, the types of cancer are practically the same. The only difference is the speed of the development of certain species. The main types are:
The most common type of cancer in dogs, especially older than 10 years. Often, the hair closes the tumor and is difficult to detect. Therefore, you need to carefully examine the skin of the dog during its bathing. The neoplasm can be like a mole or a seal covered with a crust.
The occurrence of this type of cancer is affected by 2 main factors: smoking in the family where the dog is kept, and shampoos, which include elements from oil. The main breed that is susceptible to this disease is the Scottish Terrier.
Osteosarcoma (bone cancer).
Osteosarcoma is most often found in large and heavy dogs. Cancer primarily affects the dog’s front legs and upper hind legs. It is noted that castrated dogs are more prone to this type of cancer.
It appears as a small form that is easily detectable by palpation. However, over time, it can cause complications in the form of metastases throughout the body. Mastectomy at an early stage will avoid this phenomenon. Removing the ovaries can also help reduce risk.
Cancer of the stomach /intestines.
It manifests itself through the symptoms of the gastrointestinal tract and a change in diet. Frequent constipation and diarrhea, vomiting and blood appear in the stool. The general condition also changes for the worse: you can notice the dog’s weakness and lethargy, weight loss, and tests can show anemia.
In dogs, they manifest as sarcomas and fibrosarcomas. Developing in the mucous membrane, gradually they can affect other parts of the uterus. Alas, the onset of a malignant tumor is practically not accompanied by clearly noticeable symptoms. And signs can be noted only after the tumor reaches a significant size.
Neoplasms in the liver can be both primary and secondary. Most often, secondary neoplasms are found, which are metastases of foci of the disease in other organs. The main symptom of the disease is jaundice.
Cancer symptoms in dogs can be very similar to lung cancer in humans. The onset is usually accompanied by a dry cough. There is difficulty in breathing in the absence of a load on the body. Over time, you may notice sputum with traces of pus or even blood. Most often found in dogs over the age of 10 years.
It is much less common and difficult to diagnose in the early stages. Of the noticeable manifestations – blood in the urine and pain, which can be noticed by the dog’s obstructed movements and whining. There is a general weakness of the body and apathy.
Given the manifold manifestations of cancer in various organs, the diagnosis and treatment will also be specific. First of all, modern diagnostics is focused on an integrated approach and includes 3 main components: clinical, instrumental and laboratory studies.
Clinical studies focus on a thorough examination by a specialist.
Instrumental methods can be divided into main types:
- Radiography – may be necessary to detect lung metastases in breast cancer, lung cancer, abdominal organs, and bone tissue.
- Ultrasonography or ultrasound is most useful in identifying and analyzing tumors in the abdominal cavity. It helps determine the structure and location of the neoplasm.
- Computed and magnetic resonance imaging – is used to analyze neoplasms in the brain.
- A biopsy is a fundamental component of the diagnosis of any cancer. Diagnostics are based on histological and cytological methods that are able to show the nature of the change within the cell and tissues. A final diagnosis can only be made after obtaining the results of a biopsy.
Laboratory research focuses on a thorough analysis of biological and biochemical materials, such as blood, urine, or biological material obtained by biopsy.
First of all, you need to remember that each case of the disease is individual. So, treatment can be prescribed only by a specialist in the field of oncology.